# Resources for Map-making

There are **MILLIONS** of online learning resources regarding map making, and I also learn the best via online materials. This is a storage space for myself on materials / papers / books / websites / codes related to map making. If you find this place useful, I will be more than gratified.

UNDER CONSTRUCTION

Last Updated: 17 Aug 2021

## Table of Contents

- Cartography - Colour Selection
- Cartography - Choosing classification method
- Cartography - General
- Map Projections
- Spatial Statistics with GIS
- Charts and data visualisations

## Cartography - Colour Selection

In most cases, Color Brewer would save your life in selecting colours. In general, think about if your color scheme is: 1. Colour-blind friendly; 2. Photocopy friendly and 3. For sequential, diverging or qualitative data

- Color Brewer
- a diagnostic tool for evaluating the robustness of individual color schemes

## Cartography - Choosing classification method

Classification affects how you would interpret the results of chloropleth maps!

- Types of colour schemes
- Overview of
**sequential**,**diverging**, and**qualitative**colour schemes

- Overview of
- Statistical Mapping (Enumeration, Normalization, Classification)
- Overview of data classification methods

Types of Chloropleth Map Classification Methods, from **Geospatial Analysis 6th Edition, 2020 update**

Classification scheme | Description/application |
---|---|

Unique values | - Each value is treated separately - Each value is mapped as a distinct color |

Manual classification | - Manually specifies the boundaries between classes required as a list, or specifies a lower bound and interval or lower and upper bound plus number of intervals required |

Equal interval, Slice | - The attribute values are divided into n classes with each interval having the same width=Range/n.- For raster maps this operation is often called slice |

Defined interval | - A variant of manual and equal interval, in which the user defines each of the intervals required |

Exponential interval | - the number of observations in each successive interval increases (or decreases) exponentially- Intervals are selected manually |

Equal count or quantile | - Intervals are selected so that the number of observations in each interval is the same.- Ideally the procedure should indicate the exact numbers assigned to each class |

Percentile | - Standard version equal percentages (percentiles) are included in each class - a variant of equal count or quantile plots. . - Example: <=1%, 1% to <10%, 10% to <50%, 50% to <90%, 90% to <99% and >=99% |

Natural breaks/Jenks | - Widely used within GIS packages - variance-minimization classification technique - Breaks are typically uneven, and are selected to separate values where large changes in value occur. - Could be significantly affected by the number of classes selected and tends to have unusual class boundaries. - Unsuitable for map comparisons |

Standard deviation | - The mean and standard deviation of the attribute values are calculated, and values classified according to their deviation from the mean (z-transform)- Usually at intervals of 1.0 or 0.5 standard deviations. - often results in no central class, only classes either side of the mean and the number of classes is then even. - central class (defined as the mean value +/-0.5SD) |

Box | - A variant of quartile classification designed to highlight outliers - Typically six classes are defined, these being the 4 quartiles, plus two further classifications based on outliers. These outliers are defined as being data items (if any) that are more than 1.5 times the inter-quartile range (IQR) from the median. An even more restrictive set is defined by 3.0 times the IQR. - Similar ideology as Box plots |

## Cartography - General

- https://www.gretchenpeterson.com
- A bulk resource list for making good maps

- The Complete Color Harmony, Pantone Edition (Leatrice Eiseman)
- understand emotional perceptions of colour

## Map Projections

Use Project Wizard to select the appropriate projection without knowing the details and maths behind projection!

- Projection Wizard
- A web application that helps cartographers select an appropriate projection for their map

- Geographic vs Projected Coordinate Systems
- GCS and PCS explained

- xkcd: Map Projections
- xkcd is always relevant

- Equal Area Projected Maps for ArcGIS Online

## Spatial Statistics with GIS

- De Smith, Goodchild, & Longley (2018) Geospatial Analysis, 6th Edition
- An Overview of key terms for GIS & spatial analysis

- https://twitter.com/Arrianna_Planey/status/1161241802990653441
- Twitter Thread for spatial stat in epidemiology

## Charts and data visualisations

Most importantly, remember the *principle of proportional ink* (Bergstrom and West 2016):

The principle of proportional ink:The sizes of shaded areas in a visualization need to be proportional to the data values they represent.

- Fundamentals of Data Visualization
*“a guide to making visualizations that accurately reflect the data, tell a story, and look professional."*

- The Truthful Art: Data, Charts, and Maps for Communication (Alberto Cairo)
- Overview of “creating” meaningful and useful graphs and charts